This paper presents a new approach to modeling end-to-end performance for IP networks. Unlike earlier models, in which end stations generate traffic at a constant rate, the work discussed here takes the adaptive behaviour of TCP/IP into account. The approach is based on a fixed-point method which determines packet loss, link utilization and TCP throughput across the network. Results are presented for an IP backbone network, which highlight how this new model finds the natural operating point for TCP, which depends on route lengths (via round-trip times and number of resources), end-to-end packet loss and the number of user sessions.
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